India’s Internal Security Threats & Responses By Vivek Agrawal

No. Concerns
1.     Indian Boundaries

·        Land boundaries – 14,103 km

·        Bangladesh – 4,053 km

·        China – 3,380 km including McMahon Line – territorial disputes along its border

·        Pakistan including LoC – 2,912 km

·        Nepal – 1,690 km

·        Myanmar – 1,463 km

·        Bhutan – 605 km


·        Coastline – 7,000 km

2.     India’s Internal Security: Threats & Responses


Key Note

·        Challenges and perceptions to internal security of India are numerous and very frequent.

·        No other country in the world faces so many security threats at the same time, with such high intensity, from outside and inside both.

·        Level & scope of threats are too complex, wide-ranging and huge.

·        More than 75 percent of India is affected by these threats.

·        These threats they are not just ‘law & order’ problems but a grave situation made up by some organisations or hostile countries.

·        Some people, orgnisations or hostile countries are creating troubles for India in such a style, it shows that the problem is internal security threat.

·        These threats are very serious and we have to treat as we are treating ‘cancer’.

·        Poor internal security situation is not because of India’s unfavorable strategic environment it is a known fact that we have a weak internal security mechanism.

·        Appropriate actions not taken in time & with sharp approach, threats may result in the degradation of the nation.

·        We need to reform policies & mechanisms in politics, economics, socio-cultural pitch, military & diplomatic arena, police, judiciary, media etc.

3.     Elements Of National Security

·        Boundaries Security

·        Airport Security

·        Civil Defense

·        Cyber Security

·        Economic Security

·        Empowerment Of Women

·        Energy & Natural Resources Security

·        Environmental Security

·        High Policing

·        Infrastructure Security

·        Military Security

·        Political Security

·        Port Security

·        Supply Chain Security

4.     India’s Security in-charges


Ministry of Home Affairs

Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)

National Crime Records Bureau


Ministry of State for Home Affairs

Department of Internal Security


Defense Ministry

Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA)

Joint Cipher Bureau


Directorate of Military Intelligence

Defence Security Corps

Special Frontier Force

Special Security Bureau

Air Force

Directorate of Air Intelligence


Directorate of Naval Intelligence

Coast Guard


Ministry of Finance

Economic Intelligence Council

Department of Revenue

Central Economic Intelligence Bureau

Directorate General of Revenue Intelligence

Directorate of Enforcement

Directorate General of Anti-Evasion

DG of Income Tax Investigation

Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)


Ministry of External Affairs

5.     Guarding The Nation : Armed Forces


1       Indian Army

1.1    Doctrine, corps, field force

1.1    Mountain Strike Corps

1.2    Army Aviation Corps

1.3    Mechanised forces

1.4    Infantry

1.5    Defence Security Corps


2       Indian Navy

2.1    Ships

2.2    Submarines

2.3    Weapons systems

2.4    Naval Air Arm

2.5    Naval satellite


3       Indian Air Force

3.1    Aircraft

3.2    Network-centric warfare


4       Paramilitary Forces

4.1    Indian Coast Guard

4.2    Assam Rifles

4.3    Special Frontier Force


5       Central Armed Police Forces

5.1    Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

5.2    Border Security Force (BSF)

5.3    Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

5.4    Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)

5.5    Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)


6       Other forces

6.1    National Security Guard (NSG)

6.2    Special Protection Group (SPG)

6.3    Railway Protection Force (RPF)

6.4    National Disaster Response Force (NDRF)


7       Special Forces

7.1    Para Commandos

7.2    MARCOS

7.3    Garud Commando Force

7.4    Ghatak Force

7.5    Special Frontier Force

7.6    COBRA


8       National law enforcement agencies

8.1    Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)

8.2    Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

8.3    Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

8.4    Indian Home Guard

8.5    Indian Police Service (IPS)

8.6    Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)

8.7    Rapid Action Force (RAF)


6.     Vigilant Eye On Nation : Intelligence Agencies & Programmes

·        Defence Intelligence Agency

·        Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation

·        Directorate of Air Intelligence

·        Directorate of Income Tax (Intelligence and Criminal Investigation)

·        Directorate of Navy Intelligence

·        Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI)

·        Intelligence Bureau (IB)

·        Joint Cipher Bureau (JCB)

·        Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB)

·        National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO)

·        Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)

·        Signals Intelligence Directorate (SID)

·        National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC)

·        The National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID)

·        Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (TERM)

7.     Responsible for Internal Security

The National Security Council (NSC) of India


Organisational Structure

The three-tiered structure of the NSC comprises the Strategic Policy Group, the National Security Advisory Board and a Secretariat represented by the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC).


Strategic Policy Group

The Strategic Policy Group is the first level of the three tier structure of the National Security Council.

It forms the nucleus of the decision-making apparatus of the NSC.


This group consists of the following members:


Cabinet Secretary

Chief of the Army Staff

Chief of the Naval Staff

Chief of Air Staff

Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

Foreign Secretary

Home Secretary

CBDT Chairman

Director of Intelligence Bureau

Defence Secretary

Secretary (Defence Production)

Finance Secretary

Secretary (Revenue)

Secretary (Research) (i.e. the head of the Research and Analysis Wing)

Secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy

Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister

Secretary of the Department of Space

Chairman of the Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)


The Strategic Policy Group undertakes the “Strategic Defence Review”, a blueprint of short and long term security threats, as well as possible policy options on a priority basis.


Joint Intelligence Committee

The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) of the Government of India analyses intelligence data from the Intelligence Bureau, Research and Analysis Wing and the Directorates of Military, Naval and Air Intelligence. Recently JIC got the first member from Internal Security Division, Pratiksha Hazarika youngest member ever in JIC for her extraordinary performance. The JIC has its own Secretariat that works under the Cabinet Secretariat.


National Security Advisory Board

The National Security Advisory Board consists of persons of eminence outside the Government with expertise in external security, strategic analysis, foreign affairs, defence, the armed forces, internal security, science and technology and economics.


The board meets at least once a month, and more frequently as required. It provides a long-term prognosis and analysis to the NSC, and recommends solutions and address policy issues referred to it.

8.     Other Issues and Concerns
9.     Arms Illegal Manufacturing In India
10.         Borders – Land line boundaries are Pours – Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Myanmar, Bhutan
11.         Borders – Pours Sea Fronts
12.         Cases Delay In The Courts
13.         Caste Related Violence
14.         China Telecommunication Companies In India
15.         Corruption Is Bad For Internal Security
16.         Explosives Sales & Vigilance
17.         Fake Currency
18.         Human Trafficking
19.         Import In Containers. No Good Scanners.
20.         Internal Issues
21.         Mafia And Tans Border Criminal Syndicates
22.         Naxals – Maoists
23.         Non Cooperative And Hostile Countries
24.         Old Ships Drifting & Cutting In India
25.         Passports Issuance
26.         Prostitution Export To Other Countries
27.         Religious Intolerance In Society
28.         Smuggling Of Arms
29.         Smuggling Of Narcotics
30.         Social Media

·        Non Cooperation Of Social Media Giants In The Time Of Crisis

·        Whattsapp & Twitter Misuse By Terrorists – Underworld

·        Social Media Use For Rumor Mongering

·        VOIP Telephony

·        Social Media based Telephony

·        Encrypted handsets are big threat in investigations

·        All social media platforms should have their servers installed in India

31.         Terror – Homegrown
32.         Terror – State Sponsored – Pak & China
33.         Theft Of Vehicles & Recovery

·        Adhaar / social security numbers must be tagged with vehicals.

·        CCTV camera grid is must.

34.         Used Mobiles Imports are also treated as threat.
35.         Prisons in India


Types of prisons

·        Central jail

·        District jail

·        Sub jail

·        Women’s Jail

·        Borstal School

·        Open jail

·        Special jail

·        Other jails

36.         Defense
37.         The Laws
38.         The National Security Act, 1980


An Act to provide for preventive detention in certain cases and for matters connected therewith.


·        Citation – Act No. 65 of 1980

·        Territorial extent – The whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

·        Enacted by – Parliament of India

·        Date assented to – 27 December 1980

·        Date commenced – 27 December 1980

·        Status – In force

39.         National Cyber Security Policy 2013


·        National Cyber Security Policy is a policy framework by Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY).

·        It aims at protecting the public and private infrastructure from cyber attacks.

·        The policy also intends to safeguard “information, such as personal information (of web users), financial and banking information and sovereign data”.

·        This was particularly relevant in the wake of US National Security Agency (NSA) leaks that suggested the US government agencies are spying on Indian users, who have no legal or technical safeguards against it.

·        Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (India) defines Cyberspace is a complex environment consisting of interactions between people, software services supported by worldwide distribution of information and communication technology.

40.         National security and rights & freedoms

·        Is this really matters?

·        Do we really think about it?

·        Is homeland security issues are curbing personal freedom?

·        What to do?

  Lecture at Path Institute, Raipur, Chattisgrah on 19th November 2016 by Vivek Agrawal

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